At each step in the march westward on the American frontier pioneers fought a cunning and ubiquitous enemy–disease and epidemics. There were wounds from knives and guns and no hospitals. To survive in the 18th and 19th centuries you had to find a doctor–or someone calling himself one. Meet the last defense against death in the wilderness.
Thumbnail: “Advice On The Prairie” Oil on canvas painting by William Tylee Ranney (May 9, 1813 – November 18, 1857)